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# Quantities/Cost logic

In the following, the logic for the quantities, prices and costs is explained for the fields of the precalculation. die Fields der Vorkalkulation.

### Calculation Quantity (Base)

In practice, it happens that the required quantities in the calculation do not correspond to the quantities actually ordered/produced. In addition, the same items may be used in several modules. As a result, the quantities from the calculation often deviate and lead to problems in the price or cost calculation, since e.g. quantity discounts are not taken into account.
The goal is to find a “calculation quantity (base)” (QC), with which e.g. the price determination is made. The price or cost for this base quantity is then “calculated down” to the smaller quantities.

In the demandPlus+ precalculation, the required total quantity (see Fields) per item and variant is calculated for this and used for the next steps.
Various other fields, such as the “Reordering Policy”, play a role in calculating the “calculation quantity (base)” (QC).

First, a “quantity by reordering policy” (Later: QR ) is calculated. For this purpose, a “base quantity” (Later: QB) is used as an auxiliary construct and is compared with the planning parameters.

a) Reordering Policy = “empty” or “order”
QR = Quantity (Base) from calculation line
b) Reordering Policy = “Fixed Reorder Qty.”
QB = Total Quantity (Base) from calculation line
If “Reorder Quantity” (from item or SKU) > QB => QB = “Reorder Quantity”
QR = QB (Rounded with “Order Multiple”)
c) Reordering Policy = “Lot-for-lot” or “Maximum Qty.”
QR = Total Quantity (Base) (Rounded with “Order Multiple”)

In case of a purchase item(Replenishment System = Purchase) the “Calculation Quantity (Base)” (QC) corresponds to QR (quantity by reordering policy).
In the case of make-to-stock production, a “Calculation Quantity (Base)” (QC) is searched for, which also takes into account the minimum and maximum order quantity, as well as the “Lot size” field from the item or stockkeeping unit(SKU).
The following logic applies:
If the “Minimum Order Quantity” or the “Lot size” is greater than QR => QR = maximum of “Minimum Order Quantity” and “Lot size”.
If the production is limited by the “Maximum Order Quantity”, the quantity must be adjusted so that at least QR (taking into account the “Minimum Order Quantity”) is produced.
An exception is made in the case of make-to-order production (Manufacturing Policy = Make-to-Order). Here QR is not calculated. In this case, the “Calculation Quantity (Base)” (QC) always corresponds to the Quantity (Base) from the calculation line.

Example 1 (Order, Purchase)
Quantity = 100 pce.
Total Quantity = 250 pce.
Reordering Policy= Order
Replenishment System= Purchase
=>QC = QR = 100 pce.
Explanation: If Reordering Policy= Order, all other parameters are ignored.

Example 2 (Fixed Reorder Qty., Purchase)
Quantity = 100 pce.
Total Quantity = 250 pce.
Reordering Policy= Fixed Reorder Qty.
Replenishment System= Purchase
Reorder Quantity= 450 pce.
=>QC = QR = 450 pce.
Explanation: In the case of a purchase item that is purchased with a fixed order quantity, the maximum of the “Total Quantity” and the “Fixed Reorder Quantity” is used as the basis for pricing.

Example 3 (Lot-for-lot, Make-to-Stock)
Quantity = 100 pce.
Total Quantity = 300 pce.
Reordering Policy= Lot-for-lot
Replenishment System = Prod. Order
Manufacturing Policy= Make-to-Stock
Maximum Order Quantity = 200 pce.
Minimum Order Quantity = 100 pce.
=> QR= 300 pce.; QC = 300 pce.
Explanation: QR results from the required Total Quantity of the calculation. However, since the Maximum Order Quantity is smaller than QR, the quantity must be divided into several lots. This results in 2 lots (e.g.: 200 pce. + 100 pce.). This results in:
QC = 200 pce. + 100 pce. = 300 pce.

Example 4 (Maximum Order Qty., Make-to-Order)
Quantity = 100 pce.
Total Quantity = 450 pce.
Reordering Policy= Maximum Order Qty.
Replenishment System = Prod. Order
Manufacturing Policy= Make-to-Order
Maximum Order Quantity = 400 pce.
Minimum Order Quantity = 300 pce.
=> QC = 100 pce.; QR  is not calculated.
Explanation: Since this is a make-to-order production, all parameters are ignored. The Quantity (Base) is always used as thecalculation quantity. So QC = Quantity =100 pce.

Example 5 (Fixed Reorder Qty., Make-to-Stock)

Quantity = 100 pce.
Total Quantity = 250 pce.
Reordering Policy = Fixed Reorder Qty.
Reorder Quantity= 450 pce.
Replenishment System = Prod. Order
Manufacturing Policy= Make-to-Stock
Maximum Order Quantity = 400 Stk.
Minimum Order Quantity = 300 Stk.
=> QR = 450 Stk.; QC = 600 Stk.

Explanation: QR results from the planning parameters as in example 2. However, since the Maximum Order Quantity is smaller than QR, the quantity must be divided into several lots. In this example, there are at least 2 lots. Due to the Minimum Order Quantity this results in:
QC = 300 pce. + 300 pce. = 600 pce.

Example 6 (No Reordering Policy, Make-to-Stock)

Quantity = 100 pce.
Total Quantity = 250 pce.
Reordering Policy = ” ”
Replenishment System = Prod. Order
Manufacturing Policy= Make-to-Stock
Lot Size = 400 pce.
=> QR = 100 pce.; QC = 400 pce.

Explanation: Since this item does not have a Reordering Policy, QR equals the quantity from the calculation line (100 pce). However, since the lot size is larger, QC = 400 pce.

### Price determination

For price determination, the “Calculation Quantity (Base)” (QC), described above, is to be seen as the basis. Since this quantity refers to the base unit of the item, it is first converted into the corresponding purchasing unit. Based on this, a price determination for the vendor is carried out from the item or sku.

If all item vendors are taken into account (see Fields), a price determination is also carried out for them.
The most favorable (net) price of the vendors is used as the Direct Unit Price and gets converted back to the unit used in the calculation line.
Note: Net means that the line discount has already been deducted.
Note 2: Price Determiniation always takes place in the client currency.

### Expected Operation Cost Amt. and Expected Capacity Ovhd. Cost

The calculation of Expected Operation Cost Amt. and Expected Capacity Ovhd. Cost is a bit more complicated.
First, the total quantity for the operation is calculated.
This is calculated as follows:
Total QuantityOperation = A * B * C + D
A = Quantity (Base) of the module
B = 1 + Scrap Factor % (Accumulated)
C = 1 + Item Scrap % (module) / 100
D = Fixed Scrap Quantity
Note: The “Quantity (Base)” of the module is calculated very similarly. However, this refers to the parent item’s scrap. The scraps mentioned here belongs to the current module routing, not to the parent module. So the scraps are NOT calculated twice.

The decisive factor for the calculation is the Unit Cost Calculation of the work center. This results in the following two cases:

a) Unit Cost Calculation = Time

Total capacity = A * B + C
A = Total QuantityOperation
B = Run Time
C = Setup Time

The setup costs are only added if the field “Costs Incl. Setup” is checked in “Manufacturing Setup”. If this is the case, the setup costs are made up as follows:
Setup costs= A * B * C
A = Setup Time
B = Quantity (base) of the module
C = Setup Factor
The setup factor was introduced in order not to allocate the setup costs completely to the (partly) small quantities. For items that are produced in large quantities but used in small quantities (and vice versa), this could lead to a large difference in the Expected Operation Cost Amt..
The setup factor (S) depends on the Maximum Order Quantity and “Calculation Quantity (Base)” (QC) (See Calculation Quantity (Base)) and is calculated as follows:
i) If no Maximum Order Quantity is defined => S = No. of Setup Processes / QC => S = 1 / QC
ii) If the Maximum Order Quantity is defined => S = No. of Setup Processes / QC => S= rounded up (QC / “Maximum Order Quantity”) / QC
Note: The Setup Factor and the No. of Setup Processes are already described in the fields and are only explained again here for completeness.

Finally, the costs can be calculated
Expected Operation Cost Amt. = Total Capacity* Unit Cost (Work Center or Machine Center)
Expected Capacity Ovhd. Cost = A * (B * C + D)
A = Total Capacity
B = Direct Unit Cost (Work Center or Machine Center)
C = Indirect Cost % (Work Center or Machine Center)
D = Overhead Rate (Work Center or Machine Center)

b) Unit Cost Calculation = Units

Expected Operation Cost Amt. = Total QuantityOperation * Unit Cost (Work Center or Machine Center)
Expected Capacity Ovhd. Cost = A * (B * C + D)
A = Total QuantityOperation
B = Direct Unit Cost (Work Center or Machine Center)
C = Indirect Cost % (Work Center or Machine Center)
D = Overhead Rate (Work Center or Machine Center)

Note: When calculating the capacities, the quantities are brought to the same “time unit”. For reasons of complexity, this has been ignored here.

Example 1 (Unit Cost Calculation = Units, without scrap)
Quantity (Base) = 100 pce.
Unit Cost Calculation = Units
Unit Cost = 1.20 € / Min.
=> Total QuantityOperation = 100 pce.
=> Expected Operation Cost Amt. = 100 pce. * 1.20 € / pce. = 120 €

Beispiel 2 (Unit Cost Calculation with scrap)
Quantity (Base) = 100 pce.
Scrap Factor % (Accumulated) = 0.1
Item Scrap % (module) = 20%
Fixed Scrap Quantity = 10 pce.
Unit Cost Calculation = Units
Unit Cost = 1.20 € / Min.
=> Total QuantityOperation = 100 pce. * (1 + 0.1) * (1 + 20 %/100 %) + 10 pce. = 100 pce. * 1.1 * 1.2 + 10 pce. = 142 pce.
=> Expected Operation Cost Amt. = 142 pce. * 1.20 € / pce. = 170.40 €

Example 3 (Unit Cost Calculation = Time, Excluding Setup Costs)
Quantity (Base) = 100 pce.
Unit Cost Calculation = Time
Cost Incl. Setup = No
Run Time= 5 Min. /pce.
Unit Cost = 1.20 € / min.
=> Total QuantityOperation = 100 pce.
=> Total Capacity = 100 pce. * 5 min. / pce. = 500 min.
=> Expected Operation Cost Amt. = 500 min. * 1.20 € / min. = 600 €

Example 4 (Unit Cost Calculation = Time, Including Setup Costs)
Quantity (Base) = 100 pce.
QC = 450 pce. (Calculation Quantity (Base))
Unit Cost Calculation = Time
Cost Incl. Setup = No
Fixed Scrap Quantity = 20 pce.
Run Time= 5 min. / pce.
Unit Cost = 1.20 € / min.
Setup Time = 90 min
Indirect Cost % = 15
Overhead Rate = 0.50 € / pce.
Direct Unit Cost = 0.609 € / pce.
=> Total QuantityOperation = 100 pce. + 20 pce. = 120 pce.
=> Setup Facor (S) = Roundup(450 pce. / 200 pce.) / 450 pce. = 3 / 450 pce= 0,00667 / pce
=> Total Capacity = 120 pce. * 5 min. / pce. + 90 min. * 100 pce. * 0,00667 / pce = 600 min. + 60 min. = 660 min.
=> Expected Operation Cost Amt. = 660 min. * 1.20 € / min. = 792.00€
=> Expected Capacity Ovhd. Cost = 120 pce. * (0.609 € / pce. * 0.15  + 0.50 € / pce.) = 120 pce. * 0,59135 € / pce = 70.962 € ≈ 70.96 €